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[国内] 不是科幻是科学 人脑意念控制蟑螂在交大实现

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发表于 2015-6-6 18:06:16 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
科幻电影《阿凡达》虚构了利用“脑—脑接口”技术实现异体生物控制的科学梦想,电影中的幻想能在现实实现吗?前天,记者从上海交通大学获悉,该校机械与动力工程学院硕士研究生李广晔在导师张定国的指导下,成功利用人类的大脑意念遥控活体蟑螂。这只蟑螂在人脑的指挥下,竟然完成了S形轨迹和Z形轨迹等任务。
  建立功能性“脑—脑接口”
  据介绍,该研究建立起了人脑与蟑螂大脑的功能性“脑—脑接口”,把人脑信号发送到了蟑螂大脑,实现了人脑对蟑螂运动的远程无线控制。
  控制者头部佩戴便携式无线脑电采集设备,控制者根据视觉反馈和视觉刺激,脑部产生方向控制意图;计算机程序解码脑电信号,识别控制者的控制意图,控制意图转换为控制指令后无线发送到蟑螂的电子背包接收器;蟑螂脑部的触角神经被植入了电刺激的微电极,这样就制作出了一个可控的活体“机器动物”。
  利用蓝牙通信技术,建立计算机同电子背包的无线通讯,电子背包可接收来自控制者大脑的指令,通过侵入式神经电刺激技术向蟑螂的触觉神经发送特定模式的电脉冲,进而实现人脑对蟑螂运动的控制。
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据介绍,该成果获得2015年国际机器人与自动化学会(IEEERAS)学生视频竞赛第二名。这项研究实现了人脑实时控制活体蟑螂走S形轨迹和Z形轨迹等任务。研究者指出,此项技术拓展了传统的脑机接口技术,初步尝试了“阿凡达”式的脑—脑通讯,将来亦可用于现实中复杂地形侦查、排险等操作,还为“脑联网”的兴起储备技术奠定基础。
  据悉,研究者近期还将继续改进控制模式,实现多人协同控制多只蟑螂竞赛模式演示。
  大脑遥控指挥实验非首例
  据悉,交大学生这种大脑遥控指挥外物的实验,在国内也并非首例。早在2012年,浙大就通过微型芯片实现了猴子利用意念控制机械手。
  据介绍,为了完成这项实验,科研人员必须先在一只猴子大脑运动皮层,植入两块4毫米×4毫米芯片(96个电极),这两块芯片与200多个神经元相连接,用来感受来自神经细胞的脉冲。而芯片的另一头连接着一台计算机,它实时记录着这只猴子一举一动发出的神经信号。
  科研人员再运用计算机信息技术成功提取并破译猴子大脑关于抓、勾、握、捏四种手势的神经信号,使猴子的“意念”能直接控制外部机械手。
  据了解,将芯片植入动物甚至人的大脑这种实验,都必须经过相关部门的审核。比如,浙大的这项实验就需要通过动物伦理委员会的论证和批准。
  据预测,将来人类可通过大脑讯息,直接和个人计算机的操作系统及软件交互交流,不用鼠标和键盘便可开启程序和在计算机撰写笔记。相关技术将来更可发展为“大脑网络”(brainnet),让人类以大脑讯息直接沟通。

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